Teoría de Máquinas

Teoría de Máquinas
  • Organización del listado
    • P1901 a P5464 equipos Cussons, equipos autoportantes o casi
    • Resto: Equipos Pasco, sistema modular


        TM1002 Aparato p/estudiar balanceo estático y dinámico
        P1150 Balanceadora dinámica y estática
        P1901 Aparato para el estudio de Vibraciones Torsionales
        P1906 Aparato para el estudio de Vibraciones Lineales
        P2776 Estudio de la Energía Almacenada en un Volante
        P2072 Pista y Carritos de Fletcher
        P2799 Aparato para estudios de la Fuerza Centrípeta
        P5000 Estudio de Oscilaciones Libres y Forzadas, con Amortiguamiento Variable
        P5013 Aparato para estudios de la Hidrodinámica de la Lubricación
        P5226 Aparato para estudios de la Aceleración Angular
        P5377 Giróscopo motorizado
        P5428 Aparato para el Estudio de las Torsiones en Ejes
        P5464 Aparato para el estudio de Plano Inclinado y Fricción Dinámica
        CI-6689A Accesorio para estudiar movimientos armónico forzado y caótico
        ME-9833 Conjunto de accesorios p/estudiar péndulos físicos c/un sensor de movimientos rotacionales (no incluido)
        CI-6691 Mini Laboratorio de Mecánica Rotacional p/usar c/sensor de movimientos rotacionales/encoder
        ME-9821 Conjunto para estudiar fuerza centrípeta en péndulos armados a partir del sensor de movimientos rotacionales
        ME-9774 Conjunto para efectuar estudios sobre momentos de inercia
        ME-8960 Giróscopo para demostraciones
        UI-5000 Interfase 850 compatible con sensores ScienceWorkshop y PasPort
        UI-5401 Software CapStone p/captura, análisis, procesamiento, modelización y graficación de datos, lic. p/1 puesto de trabajo
        PS-2120A Sensor de Movimientos Rotacionales - Línea PasPort
        ME-8750 Actuador electromecánico con biela/manivela
        SUTSV0040 Base triangular de fundición para soporte universal, 5 kg
        VAI0120 Varilla de acero inoxidable, 120 cm
        VAI0050 Varilla de acero inoxidable, 50 cm
        PDNHF010P Pinza doble nuez fija de hierro plastificada
        SE-8050 Rollo de cordel de Dacron p/experimentos de Física
Balanceadora dinámica y estática P1150 The Cussons Static and Dynamic Balancing Machine has been developed to provide means for accurate experimental work in the balancing of rigid rotors.

FEATURES
Allows both static and dynamic balancing to be studied
Self-contained bench mounted unit
Cradle in which rotor supported only has one degree of freedom
Linear variable displacement transducer and read-out system for amplitude measurement
Low pass filter to eliminate bearing and motor noise
Stroboscope for angle measurement
3 Disc Rotor and Simulated Armature available as an option
4 Cylinder Automobile Crankshaft available as an option

PRINCIPLE EXPERIMENTS
Four vector method of balancing, two- or three- vector method
Pivot cradle balancing
Nodal point balancing
Static balancing
Graphical analysis of unbalance
Analytical analysis of unbalance

DESCRIPTION
The Cussons Static and Dynamic Balancing Machine has been developed to provide means for accurate experimental work in the balancing of rigid rotors. The design of the machine adheres to industrial practice and the machine can be used to balance real rotors of up to 152 mm (6") diameter and 450 mm long in addition to the five-disc rotor provided.

The main feature of the machine is that the cradle, in which the rotor to be balanced is supported, has only one degree of freedom which is that of rotation in a horizontal plane about the axis of the crossed spring pivot. The position of the rotor in the cradle is adjusted so that one of the correction planes contains the axis of the cradle suspension and the rotor is balanced for moments about this correction plane by adjustments in the other correction plane. The rotor is then turned round in the cradle and balanced for moments about the other correction plane, or alternatively it is balanced statically. In either case the rotor is then completely balanced, both statically and dynamically.

The magnitude of the out-of-balance moment is obtained from the amplitude of the cradle motion which is determined by the transducer with analogue read-out. The angular position of the moment is determined by a stroboscope triggered by the motion of the cradle.

Alternatively, the two- or three- vector method of balancing, often used in practice, in which the magnitude and angular position of the out-of-balance moment are determined from readings of amplitude of motion alone can be used to balance the rotor. In an experiment the five-disc rotor is used with an arbitrary but known out-of-balance system of masses added to the centre three discs and the results for the balancing masses required on the outer two discs are compared with those obtained theoretically. A control box provides a low voltage supply and includes readout of cradle amplitude.

A set of masses, steel rule, Allen keys (3), pointer with magnetic base and drive belt are also included.

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES
P1151 A three disc rotor: 450 mm long shaft fitted with two balancing and one plane disc of 152.4 mm diameter
P1152 A simulated armature: 360 mm long shaft of 75 mm diameter and fitted with two balancing discs of 152.4 mm diameter
P1153 An automobile crankshaft: 367 mm long crankshaft (4 cylinder) fitted with two 360 protractor scales

SHIPPING DETAILS
Case size: 100 x 75 x 58 cm
Gross weight: 110 kgs
Nett weight: 80 kgs

Aparato para el estudio de Vibraciones Torsionales P1901 The Cussons P1901 Torsional Vibration Apparatus, enables lecturers and students to set up a wide range of experiments covering the needs of many courses from technician to graduate level.

FEATURES
Input/Output transducers facilitate phase and amplitude ratio measurement of angular motions and system behaviour by thermal array recorder or oscilloscope display
Designed for bench mounting
Electronic closed-loop speed control ensures stable frequency of operation
Suitable for classroom demonstrations or individual work by students from technician to graduate level

INTRODUCTION
The Cussons P1901 Torsional Vibration Apparatus, enables lecturers and students to set up a wide range of experiments covering the needs of many courses from technician to graduate level. It is of fundamental importance for the student to have a clear understanding of dynamically induced stresses arising in mechanically resonant systems such as transmission shafts and engine crank shafts, and this apparatus ensures valid and repeatable results.

An additional Linear Vibration Apparatus P1906 is available and this extends the range of experiments with the P1901 and can also be used independently as the basis of introductory work on linear vibration study.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The basic structure consists of a D section tubular bed of great rigidity which carries the various bearing housing assemblies which can be clamped in any position along its length. A knife edge on the end frame may be used for compound pendulum experiments. Four bearing housings are provided each carrying a hollow spindle mounted on ball bearings and furnished with a chuck for gripping the torsion shaft and a flange to receive the various inertia discs.

One housing carries a splined collet for attachment of the hydraulic damping unit and two housings have provision for locking in order to provide a fixed end for the shaft.

Geared Drive Assembly

This unit imparts simple harmonic motion to the torsion shaft and comprises an electric motor with closed-loop speed control driving a crank mechanism with phase control by a differential gear unit. Crank angle is read directly from the phase angle dial while crank speed is shown on an analogue meter in the Frequency Control Unit which contains all the electronic equipment for the closed-loop speed control over the frequency range 0 - 10 Hz.

Hydraulic Damping Unit

A semi-rotary, silicone fluid viscous damper with coefficient adjustable from 0.1 to 1.4 Nm/rad/s with calibrated knob.

Transducer Unit

Two precision angular motion transducers are provided and can be clamped adjacent to any of the bearing housings. They comprise carbon film potentiometers and are connected to a bridge circuit with its own trim control and power supply. The output is adequate to drive an oscilloscope or thermal array recorder with a gain of 0.05 V/cm.

Torsion Shaft and Inertia Discs

One torsion shaft is provided. This is of steel approximately 6.3 mm diameter but it can be replaced by any round bar in the diameter range 5 to 8 mm. Three sizes of inertia disc are provided and the largest has a groove around the periphery and scale calibrated in radians.

P1902 Two Beam Oscilloscope - for use with P1901 and P1906.
P1903 Twin Channel Recording Unit. Comprising a portable mains operated two channel thermal array recorder with variable speed paper drive giving a range from 0.1 cm/s. Frequency response from DC to 100 Hz.
Built in pre-amplifier with switchable variable gain up to a sensitivity of 0.05 V/cm. Supplied with a roll of thermal sensitive paper, power cable, connector set and manual.

PRINCIPAL EXPERIMENTS

1. Torsional stiffness of a shaft.

a) variation of stiffness with length

b) effective length of a shaft

c) modulus of rigidity of shaft material

2. Calibration of the transducer system.

a) overall sensitivity of recording system for small displacements

b) effect of electrical loading on a potentiometric transducer

3. Polar moment of inertia (J) of flywheel by acceleration.

4. Polar moment of inertia (J) of flywheel by oscillation as compound pendulum.

5. Single-rotor system.

a) frequency of oscillation

b) Polar moment of inertia (J) of flywheel by oscillation

6. Calibration of the damping system.

7. Damped single-rotor system (step response).

a) light damping - logarithmic decrement

b) heavier damping - first overshoot

8. Damped single-rotor system (harmonic response).

a) amplitude ratio against frequency ratio

b) phase lag against frequency ratio

c) polar response diagram

9. Simple two-rotor system.

10. Multi-rotor system (Holzer method)

a) natural frequencies

b) elastic line for each vibration mode
NB Experiment 10 can only be carried out with the addition of P1906 Linear Vibrations Apparatus.

PHYSICAL DETAILS

P1901
Nett Weight: 40kg / 88lb
Length: 1.6m / 63in
Width: 0.2m / 8in
Height: 0.4m / 16in

P1903
Nett Weight: 5kg / 11lb
Length: 0.35m / 14in
Width: 0.23m / 9in
Height: 0.1m / 4in

Aparato para el estudio de Vibraciones Lineales P1906 The P1906 Linear Vibration Apparatus provides the student with an introductory course of instruction and experiments on the subject of linear vibration.

FEATURES
Vibration of a Spring Mass System
Vibration of a Double Cantilever Beam
Demonstration of Simple Harmonic Motion of a free body
Demonstration of Hookes Law applied to a spring

INTRODUCTION
The P1906 Linear Vibration Apparatus provides the student with an introductory course of instruction and experiments on the subject of linear vibration. The practical experiments with their direct relationship to common design situations give an insight into vibration phenomena and a consideration of basic theory. They are suitable for classroom demonstrations or individual work by students from technician to graduate level and a full range of accessories is provided to enable all recommended experiments to be carried out.

DESCRIPTION
Comprises a drive unit and vibration generator with experimental accessories. The drive unit consists essentially of an oscillator and a power amplifier designed to provide a sinewave power output suitable for driving the vibration generator.

Oscillator

The circuit provides a stable sinewave input to the power amplifier, consisting of three operational amplifier stages of a switch, and two integrators. A sinusoidal input to the power amplifier is established, which contains approximately 4% distortion from a pure sinewave. A feedback loop then stabilises the waveform level about zero.

Power Amplifier

The amplifier comprises a differential input amplifier, a buffer stage with split level output and a push-pull output stage. It can be driven from an external oscillator and may be regarded as an operational amplifier with a voltage gain of +1 and minimal phase shift from DC to 10 KHz.

A differential input reduces the effect of unstabilised voltage lines whilst the application of heavy negative feedback enhances the performance of the amplifier, modifying the output impedance to suit the low impedance load of the vibration generator.

Vibration Generator

The vibration generator functions by the interaction between a steady magnetic field, produced by a permanent magnet and an oscillatory current flowing in the moving coil. A force is produced perpendicular to the lines of flux and conductors carrying the current. In this way a test load mounted on the moving coil drive spindle can be vibrated at any frequency set on the frequency dial, whilst the amplitude of vibration is proportional to drive current.

PRINCIPLE EXPERIMENTS

1. BaIl Chatter Test

A vibration test illustrating simple harmonic motion theory.

2. Spring Rate Test

A demonstration of Hookes Law.

3. Spring-Mm System Test

A test to verify the mass/frequency relationship of a vibrating spring-mass system.

4. Double Cantilever Beam

a) A determination of the cantilevers natural frequency.

b) A determination of the natural frequency of a loaded cantilever.

These are the main experiments which may be performed.

PHYSICAL DETAILS

Vibrator and Accessories

Nett Weight: 1.0kg / 2.2lb

Length: 0.09m / 3.75in

Width: 0.09m / 3.75in

Height: 0.35m / 13.7in

Control Unit

Nett Weight: 4.1kg / 9lb

Length: 0.26m / 10.2in

Width: 0.19m / 7.5in

Height: 0.19m / 7.5in

Pista y Carritos de Fletcher P2072 Cussons P2072 Fletcher Trolley apparatus is manufactured to the well known sturdy design. The apparatus is elaborately equipped for a wide range of investigations into both linear and angular motion.

APPLICATIONS
Measurement of velocity and acceleration
Experiments on Moments of Momentum and Angular Acceleration
Rolling Disc and Galileo rolling ball experiments
Wide range of experiments involving impact of trolleys

FEATURES
Two trolley system
Weights and consumables included
Swinging arm available for angular momentum experiments (P2073)
Accurate and repeatable results

DESCRIPTION
Cussons P2072 Fletcher Trolley apparatus is manufactured to the well known sturdy design. The apparatus is elaborately equipped for a wide range of investigations into both linear and angular motion.

This all metal system consists of a steel guided plane, 180 cm long, machined from a stiff girder section with a V groove and flat for guiding. The centre is slotted for the Rolling Disc experiment. A pair of echelon pulleys is provided at either end and there are two bridges adjustable for position along the length of the plane. Slope is controlled by an adjusting screw and measured on a scale. Two trolleys are provided, equipped with buffers and spear and plug for interlocking.

Supplied complete with trolley masses, double set of slotted weights and hangers, balanced rolling disc and axle, rolling balls, 2 vibrating arms, packing block, paper rolls, ink and brushes.

P2073 Swinging Arm for Fletcher Trolley Apparatus

For experiments on Moment of Momentum and Angular Acceleration and mounted on a bracket provided on the plane of Apparatus P2072. The lever is 58 cm (23") long accurately balanced and mounted on ball bearings. It is provided with buffers and adjustable masses.

P2075 Consumables Pack

For use with Fletcher Trolleys comprises six rolls of paper, bottle of ink and brush.

DIMENSIONS

P2072 - 180 cm long x 15 cm wide x 15 cm high

SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS

Gross: 82 Kg

211 cm long x 41 cm wide x 28 cm high

Estudio de Oscilaciones Libres y Forzadas, con Amortiguamiento Variable P5000 The Cussons P5000 Free and Forced Vibration Apparatus enables a number of experiments to be carried out on the free and forced vibration of a single degree-of-freedom system with viscous damping.

APPLICATIONS
Experiments on free and forced vibration of single degree-of-freedom systems with and without viscous damping
Investigations on both steady state and transient conditions

FEATURES
Employs relatively large masses supported virtually friction free on air bearings
Low natural frequency
Extreme sensitivity due to true viscous damping by eddy currents
Pen recorder to observe mass motion

INTRODUCTION
Cussons P5000 Apparatus for Free and Forced Vibration with Damping has been developed from original designs due to Bristol University to present vibration phenomena with true viscous damping in a form such that they can be readily seen as well as accurately analysed. The two most significant features of the apparatus are, first that it employs relatively large masses supported in a virtually friction free manner on an air bed and excited by small forces so that the natural frequency is low and, secondly, that damping is introduced by eddy currents thus providing true viscous damping that can be regulated with extreme sensitivity.

DESCRIPTION
The apparatus enables a number of experiments to be carried out on the free and forced vibration of a single degree-of-freedom system with viscous damping. Both steady state and transient conditions can be investigated. The vibrating mass, constrained by an externally pressurised air bearing system, has an undamped natural frequency of about 1Hz and maximum amplitude of about 20 mm so that the motion of the mass can be readily observed and recorded directly on the pen recorder (Teledeltos paper) system incorporated in the apparatus. The uncontrolled damping of the vibrating mass is very small (equivalent to a damping ratio of 0.003) and the viscous damping generated by the eddy current system is continuously variable up to a damping ratio of about 1.5.

Forced vibrations are excited in one of two ways; either by oscillating the support frame in SHM at variable frequency or by applying a rotating out-of-balance force at varying frequency to the vibrating mass. A single power pack for connection to the AC mains provides low voltage DC supplies for all the various drives and the damper current as well as the pen recorder supply. A 60 tooth timing disc and magnetic sensor are incorporated in the drive to the forcing frame so that the frequency can be determined with a digital counter.

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES
The following are some of the experiments that may be carried out with the apparatus:

1. Experimentals on the variation of undamped natural frequency with vibrating mass

With a varied mass and constant spring rate the angular velocity w to mass relationship can be determined.

2. The effect of viscous damping on free vibration and the determination of the damping ratio c

Using a freely vibrating mass and different values of damping current the damped free motion can be recorded. A graph of damping ratio c, against damper current can be plotted and used as a guide in setting particular values of c in other experiments.

3. Forced vibrations excited by oscillating the support

A variation of the amplitude of the steady state vibration of the vibrating mass with forcing frequency w and damping ratio c, shows that damping is needed to control the motion at low frequency, but it is a disadvantage at high forcing frequency.

4. Forced vibrations excited by rotating out-of- balance forces

With a variation of the amplitude and phase angle of the steady state vibration of the vibrating mass with forcing frequency and damping ratio, c. Experimental results plotted on a graph can then be compared with theoretical equations. It can then be shown that at low frequency the vibrating mass is in phase with the rotating out-of-balance force and at high forcing- frequency it is in anti-phase with the force.

5. The response of the vibrating mass to forcing, illustrating the decay of the transient vibration and the establishment of the steady state vibration

When the air supply is switched on suddenly at different points during the forcing cycle the resulting motion of the vibrating mass can be recorded. This motion is a combination of a decaying free vibration and steady state forced vibration at the forcing frequency.

The experiment can be repeated using the rotating out-of-balance force instead of the forcing frame.

DIMENSIONS
Arranged for bench mounting with dimensions approximately 90 cm long x 60 cm wide by 30 cm high for the bed and 50 cm long x 30 cm wide by 30 cm high for the control unit.

SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS
Gross 116 Kg
Nett 76 Kg
97 cm long x 79 cm wide x 53 cm high

Aparato para estudios de la Hidrodinámica de la Lubricación P5013 This Journal Friction Apparatus is the basic item in the Cussons Hydrodynamic Lubrication Unitwhich enables the friction in a journal bearing to be measured under various conditions of load and speed.

FEATURES
Horizontal 50 mm shaft and journal bearing
Three alternative shaft sleeves provide variable bearing clearance
Uses automotive thin wall main bearing shells of various widths
Variable speeds up to 1000 rev/min
Radial loading of the bearing of up to 500N is applied vertically by weights via an hydrostatic pad
Air cylinder driven reciprocating oil pump and accumulator
High quality oil filtration and pressure regulation
Direct measurement of bearing friction torque
Indication of oil film thickness and detection of metal to metal contact based on electrical resistance between journal and housing
Instrumented for oil pressure and temperature, and drive motor current

OPTIONS
P5014 Special bearing housing and instrumentation for measurement of bearing pressure distribution
P5015 Air gauging system for the measurement of bearing attitude (eccentricity)
P5016 Air compressor and receiver with filter regulator unit

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITY
a) Friction Torque in a Journal Bearing assembled with any combination of 3 shaft sleeves and any 3 bearing shell widths
During running-in of the bearing shells
Preparation of torque-load parameter curves under different conditions of journal speed, load and including boundary lubrication conditions
Comparison of friction torque with that predicted by the Petroff equation

b) Pressure Distribution in a Journal Bearing
Comparison of summated pressures with applied load under different conditions including conditions of limited boundary lubrication

c) Bearing Attitude
Measurement of approximate running-in wear
Measurement of bearing attitude for different conditions of load and speed

INTRODUCTION
Cussons Hydrodynamic Lubrication Unit has been developed to provide a wide range of laboratory experiments on journal bearings from a self-contained piece of apparatus. The recent up-surge in interest in the science of tribology has resulted in a greater emphasis on lubrication studies in many types of syllabus from craft to degree courses. A major section of a lubrication syllabus is always a study of hydrodynamic effects and this unit will have many uses in such a study.

By the use of different items comprising the range it is possible to measure the journal friction, map the hydrodynamic pressure of the oil film and determine the bearing attitude of a journal bearing using only the instrumentation provided. These tests can be carried out under conditions of varying speeds, varying load, varying bearing clearance and varying bearing width.

Special features of the unit are the hydrostatic loading system, the sensitive torque measuring instrumentation and the direct pressure measuring probe. All the equipment and instrumentation is of very high quality. The bearing under test closely resembles actual working practice and it is particularly valuable for demonstration and experimental work in elementary courses, as well as being capable of experiments suitable for degree and post graduate work.

DESCRIPTION
The Journal Friction Apparatus is the basic item in the Cussons Hydrodynamic Lubrication Unit which enables the friction in a journal bearing to be measured under various conditions of load and speed, including boundary lubrication conditions, and the comparison of the results with the friction torque predicted by the Petroff equation.

The apparatus consists of a sturdy tubular steel frame on which is carried a counter shaft mounted in ball bearings having an overhung mandrel at the front. The shaft is driven by a variable speed DC motor via a toothed belt and pulleys. The bearing system, which is to be the subject of the investigation, is assembled around the mandrel.

The Journal Shaft

The journal shaft consists of an accurately ground hardened steel sleeve which fits over the mandrel and is retained by a screw. Two additional sleeves of graded diameter are provided which permit the running clearance to be varied.

Journal Bearing

The bearing consists of a split bearing housing which permits the use of standard motor car engine type thin wall shell bearings. Provision is made to accept shells of different width and thus assess the effect of bearing length. Replacement shells are low in cost and hence it is of little consequence if they are damaged when running under boundary conditions. Three sets of bearing shells are supplied. The use of low cost bearing shells also allows the economic evaluation of bearing wear during the initial running-in of bearings.

Variable Speed Drive

A DC motor with AC solid state speed control unit provides very sensitive and stable control of the mandrel speed over the range 20-1000 rev/min.

The Load

The load is applied to the journal using masses and a mass hanger attached to a specially developed hydrostatic pad. In this way the journal housing is completely isolated from the loading system except for vertical load and very accurate friction torque measurements can be made.

The Oil Supply

The oil supply to the test journal and to the hydrostatic pad is pressurised using a reciprocating pump and accumulator system that results in very little heating effect in the oil. Oil and bearing temperatures quickly stabilise at just above ambient temperature and it is possible to run experiments without delay. The oil system is complete with a ten micron filter, over pressure relief valves, pressure gauges and reducing valves for controlling the oil supplies to the hydrostatic pad and journal.

Instrumentation

The bearing friction torque is measured using a torque arm and a sensitive strain gauge load cell with an electrical meter for direct read-out in Nm. The transducer is very quickly calibrated since it is located magnetically and can be transferred to a vertical face on the frame and directly loaded using a small mass which is supplied. Mandrel speed is displayed by an electronic (analogue) tachometer. There is also an electrical resistance meter to demonstrate the effect of bearing clearance and an ammeter for armature current.

P5014 - PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION APPARATUS
The Pressure Distribution Apparatus, which is to be used in conjunction with P5013, enables the pressure of the oil film in a journal bearing to be measured at 30 separate points over the bearing surface. A special journal housing is supplied which is formed in a block of cast iron and has an accurately honed bore designed to run on the bearing sleeves supplied with P5013. The block is drilled and lapped with the necessary passages for measurement of the oil pressure and blanking plugs are provided for those passages not traversed by the pressure probe provided. The pressure probe comprises a bourdon type gauge mounted on an accurately lapped spool which is used to traverse the drillings in the bearing block.

P5015 - BEARING ATTITUDE APPARATUS
This equipment, which is to be used in conjunction with P5013, consists of an air gauging system for use in determining the bearing attitude. A pair of nozzles is used to measure the X and Y displacements of the bearing housing relative to the journal shaft. The gauges are extremely sensitive and little affected by the curvature of the journal shaft. Calibration is carried out on a separate fixture using a micrometer head.

P5016 - AIR COMPRESSOR
A fully automatic reciprocating air compressor driven by a single phase electric motor and supplied with an air receiver and filter regulator unit.
Capacity - 77.9 l/min
Working pressure - 8.5 bar
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION AND BEARING PARTICULARS
Speed - 20-1000 rev/min
Maximum bearing load - 500 N
Nominal Shaft Diameter - 50.55 mm (1.99")
Shaft Sleeve Diameters - 50.52 mm
50.50 mm
50.47 mm
Width of bearing shells - 44 mm, 34 mm, 28 mm
Width of P5014 bearing - 45 mm
Oil - Normally Tellus 15
Supply Pressure - 6 bar approximately
Hydrostatic Pressure - 14 bar approximately

Aparato para estudios de la Aceleración Angular P5226 The Cussons P5226 Angular Acceleration Apparatus is a modern design of a classical experiment in the subject of study which is variously known as Theory of Machines, Kinematics, Dynamics or more simply as Mechanics.

INTRODUCTION
Cussons P5226 Angular Acceleration Apparatus is a modern design of a classical experiment in the subject of study which is variously known as Theory of Machines, Kinematics, Dynamics or more simply as Mechanics. The study of the angular acceleration of a cylindrical solid body caused by the action of a falling mass allows a number of simple experiments to be performed relating to the kinematics and dynamics of rotating systems.

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES
Newton"s second law applied to a rotational system:

Angular acceleration proportional to torque
Angular acceleration inversely proportional to moment of inertia
Rate of change of moment of momentum proportional to applied torque
Change in momentum proportional to impulse
Interchange between potential energy and kinetic energy.

Moment of Inertia.

Moment of inertia proportional to mass
Confirmation of parallel axis theorem applied to moment of inertia

DESCRIPTION
The apparatus consists essentially of a low inertia circular disc mounted onto a vertical axle that can be rotated under the action of a falling mass. The low inertia circular disc, which is 300 mm diameter and 50.8 mm thick, is manufactured from plywood and is keyed to a 12 mm diameter by 305 mm long stainless steel axle. A 50 mm diameter pulley is attached to the axle. The circular disc and axle are mounted with the axle vertical between pivots, one on the base and one on a radial brace from a vertical pillar. The upper surface of the circular disc is scribed with circles of 100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm and 250 mm diameter and two holes are provided on each circle as sites to locate additional inertia discs. Four inertia discs are provided, each disc is 50 mm diameter by 15 mm and is manufactured from brass with a mass of 250 gm.

A spring steel vibrator, fitted with a fine brush, is supported from the base on a block so that it vibrates at a natural frequency of 5 Hertz. The brush is attached to the vibrator by a hollow screw which allows its position to be readily adjusted so that it draws a fine line on a paper strip fastened to the cylindrical rim of the circular disc.

A 10 gram mass hanger and a set of brass masses of 3 off 50 gm, 2 off 20 gm and 1 off 10 gm are provided to accelerate the system via a 1/16" cord passing over a pulley mounted on the vertical pillar and fastened to the pulley on the circular disc axle. A release mechanism is provided which will simultaneously release the vibrator and the circular disc.

SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS
Case size: 74 x 56 x 57 cm
Weight:
20 kg nett,
42 kg gross

Giróscopo motorizado P5377 The Cussons P5377 Electrical Gyroscope has been designed to demonstrate the relationships between gyroscopic speed, gyroscopic inertia, external applied torque and precession.

APPLICATIONS
Experiments on fundamentals of gyroscopic motion
Demonstrates relationships between gyro speed and torque, precession and nutation
Investigates behaviour of a suspended gyroscope

FEATURES
Adjustable masses to produce balance, and positive and negative torque position
Removable gyroscope for demonstration of nutation effects
Variable speed motor mounted in a dual axis bearing. (Permits precession and torque movements.)
Separate hand-held optical tachometer
Includes spreadsheet discs files for data analysis

DESCRIPTION
Cussons P5377 Electrical Gyroscope has been designed to demonstrate the relationships between gyroscopic speed, gyroscopic inertia, external applied torque and precession. This is particularly important for attitude measurement in moving vehicles (including aircraft and ships). Cussons Electrical Gyroscope consists of a powerful variable speed low inertia, low voltage d.c. motor, with a speed range of up to approximately 5000 rev/min. The rotational direction may be reversed. A separate hand-held optical tachometer is provided for accurate measurement of the gyroscope rotor speed.

Facility to apply torque to the system is provided by two rods located along the rotor axis on which three 150g adjustable masses may be positioned. The gyroscope may be removed from the outer gimbol to allow demonstration of a suspended pendulum gyroscope. A 3m long extension cable is provided so that the gyroscope can be operated whilst attached to a beam or hand-held.

TENDER SPECIFICATION
Gyroscope assembly comprising of disc rotor of approximately 150 mm diameter mounted on a low voltage d.c. motor and furnished with pivot bearings and counter masses, complete with support column, and integral power pack for bench mounting and supplied complete with Cussons P4740 Hand-Held Optical Tachometer.

DIMENSIONS
60 cm long x 34 cm wide x 76 cm high
Weight: 23 Kg

Aparato para el Estudio de las Torsiones en Ejes P5428 Cussons P5428 Whirling of Shafts Apparatus has infinitely variable control shaft speed and allows for experiments with Whirling of a long thin shaft, a continuous shaft and shafts with concerntrated masses and intermediate nodes.

FEATURES
Infinitely variable control shaft speed
Precision electronic tachometer
Three steel specimen shafts
Three guard rings to limit whirling deflection
Four variable position bearing housings provide nodal points

PRINCIPLE EXPERIMENTS
Whirling of a long thin shaft supported at its ends
Whirling of a shaft with concentrated masses
Whirling of a continuous shaft
Whirling of a shaft with intermediate nodes

DESCRIPTION
Cussons Whirling of Shafts Apparatus consists of a light alloy bed 1.8m in length fitted with a countershaft assembly at one end with a high speed low voltage DC motor connected to the experimental shaft by a flexible coupling. Four ball bearing brackets which are adjustable in position, support the shaft and provide nodal points. Three guard rings to limit the shaft deflection are supplied and these may be located at any point along the bed. Two additional shaft specimens are provided, all of ground steel, of various diameters.

Also provided are two discs, having different values of Moment of Inertia to fit each of the specimen shafts. A separate solid state AC Control Unit provides infinitely variable rotational speed control and speed is displayed by a precision electronic tachometer.

SERVICES
For AC mains 50 Hz or 60 Hz supply. Please state voltage when ordering.

SHIPPING DETAILS
Case size: 188 x 46 x 46 cm
Gross weight: 95 kgs
Nett weight: 51 kg

Aparato para el estudio de Plano Inclinado y Fricción Dinámica P5464 The Cussons P5464 Inclined Plane/ Sliding Friction Apparatus has been designed for experiments on moving and static bodies and measures the frictional effect of an inclined plane and the coefficient of friction between steel and various materials.

APPLICATIONS
Measures coefficient of friction between steel and various materials
Frictional effects of an inclined plane
Experiments of moving and static bodies

FEATURES
Clinometer measurement for fine adjustment of plane angle
Eight sliding surfaces of various engineering materials
Various load masses

DESCRIPTION
Consisting mostly of metal construction with a machine ground steel plane. The plane carries a free running pulley at one end and at the other end is hinged to the base plate. Two vertical pillars located either side of the plane carry a cross bar which can be positioned at various levels by set screws to tilt the plane. A knurled screw permits fine adjustment of the angle of the plane which has a maximum value of 45. The angle is displayed on a Clinometer Protractor on the front face of the plane. Eight sliding surfaces are supplied on opposite faces of 10 cm x 10 cm pads having a total mass of 1 Kg each. Additional loads of 2 x 1 Kg each and 1 x 500 gm together with 1 Kg weight carrier are also provided. Certain materials are provided on both half area and full area of the pads (soft wood and hard wood).

Other surfaces include steel, glass, aluminium and PVC.

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES
P5465 Weight hanger and weights

DIMENSIONS
92 cm long x 23 cm wide x 70 cm high (when assembled)
Packed Dimension
114 cm long x 43 cm wide x 36 cm high
Gross weight 42 Kg

SERVICES
None require

  • Uso típico
  • En las prácticas típicas, primero se determina el momento de inercia de cada frigura, haciéndolo girar sobre un eje vertical y luego se investiga cómo se comportan en otras condiciones como péndulos físicos.

    En las fotografías se observa este conjunto acompañado por:

    Mini Laboratorio de Mecánica Rotacional p/usar c/sensor de movimientos rotacionales/encoder CI-6691 Se utiliza como complemento de nuestros sensores de movimientos rotacionales CI 6538
    o PS 2120A (conectados a sus interfases asociadas) para estudiar:
    • Oscilaciones de un péndulo físico
    • Inercia rotacional de cuerpos con distintas geometrías
    • Conservación del momento angular (particularmente en colisiones)
    • Recomendamos acompañar por:

    • ¡Garantía Extendida 3 años!

  • Constitución del equipo
  • *Disco de aluminio
    *Anillo de fundición
    *Varilla de acero
    *Juego de pesas de bronce para desplazar sobre la varilla
    *Súper polea ME-9450

  • Fotos de usos típicos (con este accesorio acoplado a otros equipos)

  • Movimiento Uniformemente Acelerado - Estudio de Momentos de Inercia

    Choques - Conservación de la Cantidad de Movimiento

  • Uso típico
  • En la fotografía se muestra este conjunto en compañía de:
    • Encoder/sensor de movimientos rotacionalesPS-2120A
    • Sensor dinámico de fuerzas PS-2104
    • Interfase PS-2001 (modelo ya fuera de producción, ver nuevo listado)
    • Soporte universal

    y las gráficas típicas obtenidas con el programa Data Studio (ver equivalente en CapStone)

    Interfase 850 compatible con sensores ScienceWorkshop y PasPort UI-5000
    • Práctica conexión USB
    • Extensa familia de sensores compatibles ScienceWorkshop y PasPort
    • Cuatro entradas digitales TTL para sensores digitales ScienceWorkshop
    • Tres entradas analógicas diferenciales: 1MOhm, +-20V, 14 bit, c/preamplificación ajustable por software: 1x, 10x y 100x, hasta 10Ms/s
    • Cuatro entradas para sensores PasPort
    • Hasta 10 millones de muestras/s
    • Tres generadores de funciones incluidos:
      • 1mHz a 100kHz, +-15V, 2A, c/barrido, monitoreo interno de tensión y corrientes entregadas y salida por fichas banana
      • 2 x 1mHz a 500 kHz, +-10V 50 mA, sobre sendos conectores BNC
    • Compatible el poderoso software CapStone, con el que funcionará como:
      • Adquisidor de datos
      • Voltímetro
      • Osciloscopio
      • Analizador de espectros
      • Temporizador
      • Graficador
      • y mucho, pero mucho más
    • Nota importante: No es compatible con los software DataStudio, EzScreen ni ScienceWorkshop
    Recursos on line

    Video en YouTube
    Primeros pasos con la Interfase Universal 850

    Video en YouTube
    Introducción al uso de Capstone

    Video en YouTube
    Uso de Capstone y la interfase 850 como generador de señales

    Video en YouTube
    Uso de tablas, muestreo manual y cálculos rápidos

    Video en YouTube
    Reproducción en cámara lenta, normal o rápida de las mediciones. Captura de videos sincronizados y relacionados con la toma de datos. Variables calculadas y su uso

    Software CapStone p/captura, análisis, procesamiento, modelización y graficación de datos, lic. p/1 puesto de trabajo UI-5401 Recursos on line

    Video en YouTube
    Introducción al uso de Capstone

    Video en YouTube
    Uso de Capstone y la interfase 850 como generador de señales

    Video en YouTube
    Uso de tablas, muestreo manual y cálculos rápidos

    Video en YouTube
    Reproducción en cámara lenta, normal o rápida de las mediciones. Captura de videos sincronizados y relacionados con la toma de datos. Variables calculadas y su uso

    Página web
    Centro de tutoriales y recursos sobre CapStone de Pasco Scientific

    Manual (pdf)
    Manual de usuario (de lectura cuasi lineal)

    Video en YouTube
    Ejemplo de uso: Física del Fútbol a través del análisis de video

    Video en YouTube
    Ejemplo de uso: más Física del Fútbol

    Sensor de Movimientos Rotacionales - Línea PasPort PS-2120A Recursos on line

    Video en YouTube
    Ejemplo de uso en combinación con el juego de accesorios ME-8969

    Video en YouTube
    Presentación, varios modos de montaje y algunos ejemplos de uso

  • Equipos complementarios
  •   El sensor aquí mostrado no funciona sólo. Debe ser conectado a alguna de las interfases o dataloggers mostrados en nuestro índice PasPort

    Enlace al sitio del fabricante G Cussons

      En Inglés (línea completa)